Alcoholic liver disease Wikipedia

(Left panel) Peroxisomal catalase is a minor hepatic pathway of ethanol oxidation that uses hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to oxidize ethanol to acetaldehyde and water. The deposition of collagen typically occurs around the terminal hepatic vein (perivenular fibrosis) and along the sinusoids, leading to a peculiar “chicken wire” pattern of fibrosis in alcoholic cirrhosis. It involves 61 percent of the American population, and among the 61 percent, 10 to 12 percent are heavy drinkers. The life expectancy of a person with reduces dramatically as the condition progresses.

Cessation of drinking (i.e., abstinence) is an integral part of therapy. Liver transplantation remains the life-saving strategy for patients with end-stage alcoholic liver disease. Long-term alcohol abuse can lead to dangerous damage called alcoholic liver disease.


Recommendations based on Population Intervention Comparison Outcome format/Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation analysis are in Table 1. These recommendations and guidelines should be tailored to individual patients and circumstances in routine clinical practice. Key concepts and recommendations based on author expert opinion and review of literature are in Table 2.

alcoholic liver disease

However, larger studies including a recent genome-wide association study revealed that patatinlike phospholipase domain containing protein 3, may be the main genetic determinant of risk for and severity of ALD (25,26). Phospholipase domain containing protein 3 is closely related with lipid metabolism and is also a risk factor for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and HCC (26). The allele that negatively impacts disease progression (i.e., rs738409) is more frequent within the Hispanic population, which is particularly sensitive to fatty liver diseases (25). The liver tolerates mild alcohol consumption, but as the consumption of alcohol increases, it leads to disorders of the metabolic functioning of the liver. The initial stage involves the accumulation of fat in the liver cells, commonly known as fatty liver or steatosis.

Hepatic encephalopathy

alcoholic liver disease is treatable if it is caught before it causes severe damage. However, continued excessive drinking can shorten your lifespan. You will receive the first liver transplant and decompensated cirrhosis email in your inbox shortly. When seeking answers, people often look to experts for clear and accurate information. By subscribing to decompensated cirrhosis and liver transplant content from Mayo Clinic, you have taken an important first step in gaining knowledge and using it for your overall health and well-being.

  • Notably, some patients rapidly gain weight after they stop drinking, increasing their risk for developing nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
  • Nevertheless, if you have alcohol-related cirrhosis or alcoholic hepatitis and don’t stop drinking, no medical or surgical treatment can prevent liver failure.
  • The majority of AH patients have underlying macronodular cirrhosis, which is not easily distinguishable from other forms of cirrhosis.
  • The guidelines classify moderate drinking up to one drink a day for females, and up to two drinks for males, and only over the age of 21 years.
  • Liver transplantation, a definitive treatment option in patients with advanced alcoholic cirrhosis, may also be considered in selected patients with AH cases, who do not respond to medical therapy.

Notably, some patients rapidly gain weight after they stop drinking, increasing their risk for developing nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. As there is no specific biomarker for the diagnosis of ALD, diagnosis requires excluding other liver diseases in a patient with heavy alcohol use. Monozygotic twins have a higher concordance rate for alcohol-related cirrhosis than dizygotic twins (23). Genetic factors may influence susceptibility to alcohol consumption or predisposition to development of ALD among those with AUD. Genes influencing the susceptibility for alcoholism include modifiers of neurotransmission such as γ-amino butyric acid and modifiers of alcohol metabolism such as alcoholic dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes (24).

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